The Purgery

A Writer's Blog & Resource Repository

Category: Lessons Learned

Coastal Texas Hurricane Prep in the 19th Century: How did they do it back then?

The past 24 hours have been fraught with anxiety. Family and friends who are sheltering in place to ride out Hurricane Harvey are heavy on my mind while I obsess from afar over social media with storm updates and “safety check-ins.” One thing  reassures me however: my people really know how to do hurricanes.

Storms have pummeled the Texas Gulf Coast forever. As time passes, coastal residents continue to improve their resiliency and ability to mitigate the effects of stormy weather blowing in from the Gulf.

My novel in progress, River of the Arms of God, is primarily set in Brazoria County from about 1829 – 1857. As a part of my book research, the effects from the following historic storms factor into the events of my narrative:

  • September 12-14, 1818: “A storm of extraordinary violence” hit Galveston. Spanish spy and pirate Jean Lafitte allegedly offered his house to shelter the sick during the storm.
  • August 18, 1835: “Antigua-Texas Hurricane” hit near Corpus Christi. While the impacts of the winds and rains on Brazoria County are somewhat uncertain, parts of Galveston flooded.
  • October 2-6, 1837: “Racer’s Storm”  steamrolled a 2,000 mile path of destruction and affected the entire Texas Gulf Coast. Ships in the Gulf were sucked as far as 3 miles inland.
  • November 5, 1839: A hurricane made landfall at Galveston. I am still researching further details about this storm.
  • June 27, 1850: A “severe squall” pummeled Matagorda Bay at Indianola. In 1886, another storm would erase Indianola from the map entirely.
  • June 25 – 26, 1851: A “short, severe storm” passed over Matagorda Bay. Salt water contaminated the water supply, and the winds flattened all corn fields in the area.
  • September 17-19, 1854: A storm touched land at Matagorda/Galveston, and the town of Matagorda was leveled. Brazoria experienced strong winds and rain, and sugar cane and cotton crops were ruined. A yellow fever outbreak followed.

If anyone knows how coastal people in the early to mid 19th century might have prepared to ride out these storms, do please comment! These were the days before Doppler technology, so they would not have had much (or any) time to evacuate. They would have had only a few hours’ notice to implement whatever contingency plans were in place to minimize property damages and keep their families safe.

I wonder what those plans might have looked like? Might they have been so different from  emergency preparedness plans today?

Other questions:

1. What did people do with their livestock? 

2. How did people secure their properties?

3. Did people identify in advance areas of refuge against flooding and/or wind? Did they shelter as a community, or did they hole up in their own houses?

4. How was imminent storm information dispersed? 


Fortunately we have come a long way since the 1800’s in our ability to recover from such storms. Antiseptics and advancements in medical technology have improved mortality rates in a cyclone’s aftermath. Architectural and carpentry methods have advanced so that structures along the coast are more resilient to wind and water. Meteorology as a science has also improved.

Below I have linked a report publicized by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Weather Prediction Center on the history of hurricanes along the Texas Gulf Coast. Its data reaches as far back as the early 16th century.

Roth, David. Texas Hurricane History. Prepared for the National Weather Service in Camp Springs, MD on January 17, 2010. 

Lessons in Bravery, Creative Community, and Recounting the Past: An Author Interview with Sandi Giver

I love history. But as fascinating as the past can be, we cannot always count on it to be pretty. For every human achievement in history, there is the commensurate human failure. For each policy put into action, for each acquisition of land, for every battle fought and won, some group or individual suffered negative implications or losses.

A great way to learn from our societal misdeeds, the only way to address systemic inequities that we see today, is to consider (and talk about) past events that enabled the status quo – no matter how unpleasant or painful. Otherwise, we may never understand the true nature of problems we are hoping to solve.

I pondered that old chestnut one warm Saturday afternoon in late March, as I walked to the Eastern Market Metro station in the Capitol Hill neighborhood of Washington D.C. Earlier in the week I had arranged to meet there with my friend and colleague, Sandi Giver, who is no stranger to discussing unpleasant and painful past events.

I knew our interview would not be relevant to Texas history, or even to historical fiction, but I hoped that our conversation would shine some light on the mysterious process that brings to life an informative, important, and meaningful piece of writing, or as Sandi described it: a thing of love.

Around the time Sandi arrived, street performers had just finished Steely Dan’s “Do it Again” on bongos and the electric violin. Families and tourists were milling about in the sunshine, taking selfies and tapping their toes to the music. The atmosphere was typical of the area surrounding Eastern Market, and also the first weekend of D.C.’s famous cherry blossom season.

We headed south on Pennsylvania Avenue toward a quieter venue, to one of my favorite local eateries Bayou Bakery. With bellies full of New Orleans-style beignets and fresh coffees in hand, we settled onto a wooden park bench behind the restaurant to talk shop and discuss the joy and toil of writing with a mission.

Read the adapted interview, or listen to the two-hour recording.

Author Sandi Giver has over ten years of professional experience in anti-trafficking in persons and women’s health issues. Her book, One of Us: Sex, Violence, Injustice. Resilience, Love, Hope. (published in November 2016), recounts her experience with the military criminal justice system following her sexual assault by an active member of the U.S. Navy in 2011. Since then, Sandi has continued to dedicate herself to destigmatizing perceptions of sexual assault victims, as well as raising awareness, community organizing, and advocating for sexual assault policy reforms. She is currently pursuing her Masters in Social Work at the University of Maryland, Baltimore and works at Peace Corps headquarters in Washington D.C.

Follow Sandi on Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter, or visit her website

Lesson Learned: Information Isn’t Always Free

Quick Disclaimer: Written below are my own research findings that have not been vetted by anyone in the legal profession. 

When I first started blogging, I thought it would be a great idea to adapt all of my most interesting historical research findings into concise, info-packed précis and showcase them with sidebar links and a dedicated page. After all, I am all about sharing facts, connecting with others, and crediting the hard work of researchers and scholarly writers I admire.

Because my intentions are so pure, I should not have to worry that I might be committing an offense like copyright infringement. Right?

Well, maybe. Maybe not. It turns out that the regulatory waters governing use of copyright protected materials are murkier than the Brazos River, and attempting to circumnavigate the world of intellectual property rights without legal counsel is risky to say the least.

I cast the question out to various online writers groups I belong to, thinking there might be some wizened soul out there who could provide a definitive answer. My inquiry was mostly met with silence, although four out of about 30,000 individuals chimed in with their own helpful takes on what might be considered my fair use of copyright protected information.

Before making any knee jerk edits to my webpage, I decided to take a stroll over to the Library of Congress to personally confer with a representative of the end-all, be-all source on the rules governing use and redistribution of copyright protected works: the U.S. Copyright Office. Here is what I learned:

  • The U.S. Copyright Office cannot provide legal counsel or any advice on what might or might not be considered copyright infringement. It can provide verbatim rules and regulations from the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, as well as circulars illustrating just about anything you want to know about copyrights. All of this information is available at
  • Every written work produced today has a copyright owner, unless s/he waives his or her copyrights or releases the work to the public domain. These days every written work (published or unpublished) is the property of the author or publisher, or someone who derives rights through the author or publisher, from the moment it is first fixed onto a page.
  • Only the courts may legally decide what constitutes fair use of registered copyright protected materials in a dispute. Not a work’s owner, intellectual property attorneys, the media, or even experts running the show over at the U.S. Copyright Office. Copyright registration significantly strengthens a claimant’s case in court, should s/he pursue legal action against a potential infringer. Also, I found out that litigation is costly for both claimants and infringers – we are talking $100K on the low end. Long story short, one should never assume his or her online use of copyright protected information is permissible under the fair use doctrine.
  • Facts and ideas are uncopyrightable. This is good news. Technically it means I should not have to change my blogging concept for the time being. However, as a courtesy to published researchers and historians who have developed expertise in relatively niche subject matter, I will refrain from boiling their life’s work down to meme-sized key points. Instead I will reference complete works on my “Resources” page.
  • We should not assume orphan works are in the public domain. If an author cannot identify a registered copyright owner of a published work written between 1909 and 1976 in the Copyright Office’s card catalog, it does not mean the work has no owner. It is possible for works to fall irrevocably into the public domain, as is what happened with works published without the required notice of copyright prior to 1909, works published prior to 1964 whose registration term expired without renewal after 28 years, or works that met the final expiration date of their second copyright term. Sometimes there is just no way to know for sure who owns rights to an older work.
  • There is no quick fix to obtaining licenses and written permissions to use copyright protected content in our own works. To quote the Copyright Office’s information specialist I met with, “It’s like eating an elephant. Real authors know it can sometimes take years to get all the right permissions… it just can’t always be done within 6 months.” If an author cannot find a source’s copyright owner to obtain legal permission to reuse it, the U.S. Copyright Office advises authors not to use the source it at all. Not everyone follows that guidance, however. Some authors take extra precautions to ensure unintentional infringement does not harm their reputation in the long run. For example, they may publicly disclose their good faith efforts to try and locate sources in a preface or annex to their newly published work. Some authors and publishers establish special accounts that accumulate a percentage of book proceeds, so that if an orphan work’s copyright heir emerges from obscurity to claim infringement the situation has a chance of settlement prior to reaching court. There are no guarantees such precautions actually work.
  • Information online is subject to the same copyright protections as information published elsewhere. When I first started researching 19th century sugar production, I was surprised at the dearth of information accessible online. I thought there would be so much more available in the public domain than there actually is, and I am not positive that some of the info I found on the internet was published with a license or with permission from content owners. For this reason I am reluctant to link directly to those pages on my blog. Also relevant, linking to another website’s homepage without permission is not exactly illegal. Deep linking to other sites however, or providing links that dodge a website’s homepage, can be more problematic. Many websites welcome it while others do not.  Some websites, like the New York Times and BBC for example, have clear linking policies. If ever in doubt, bloggers and webmasters should pursue linking agreements to avert disputes that might arise from deep linking. For small fry online presences like me, prominently posting a disclaimer to deny endorsement or approval of products and information at the other end of hyperlinks might or might not help minimize damages in court.


It did not occur to me at the time I launched this website that my posted précis could be perceived as anything but helpful. I wanted readers to breeze through key findings of all the incredible books, periodical articles, and websites I have found useful these past few months. At best, readers would be thrilled to have access to obscure historical information at no cost. At worst, readers would find the précis boring. When the time came for me to get to work on my first précis, I remembered I should probably check the work’s copyright notice for any restrictions. Sure enough, this is what I found:

“All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.”

I was not discouraged. I decided to contact the copyright owner/author to ask for written permission. I was (still am) a big fan of the particular work I wanted to spotlight. To my starry-eyed delight she responded the next day, but not in the way I anticipated. She agreed to let me use her work conditionally, as long as I submitted the finished product to her for review and approval first. That is a perfectly reasonable request, which I intend to honor even knowing that she could change her mind upon reading my final product. C’est la vie. These are the risks we take in attempting to write for public consumption.

I have a long way to go before I can call myself an authority on how to legally use copyright protected information online. Pesky little ethics I never knew I had, coupled with an incurable paranoia of all things litigious, have motivated me to reconsider the purpose and structure of The Purgery. Moving forward, I plan take the following steps to try and protect myself and others from inadvertently infringing upon the intellectual property rights of hardworking professionals I respect:

1) I will not reproduce or cite large passages of a protected work without first obtaining a license or written permission from the intellectual property or copyright owner. If I cannot locate the owner, I will not use the work.

2) I will give full credit to any written, recorded, or interviewed source I consult with a citation or direct link within or beneath the body my blog posts.

3) I will not deep link to articles buried in commercial or private websites. Instead I will link directly to homepages and leave it to interested readers to axe through the quagmire.

4) I will do my best to obtain signed release forms from interview subjects and property owners prior to publishing words or photographs of the subjects and/or their property on my blog.

5) I will obtain a Creative Commons license to clearly communicate which rights I have reserved and which rights I have waived for anyone intending to reference or reuse information originating on The Purgery.

I welcome any comments from individuals who have greater knowledge or expertise on the topic of intellectual property rights (copyright, trademark, patents, etc.). Do you have any specific advice or caution to offer new writers?


For more information on U.S. Copyright laws and registration visit

For pictures of my latest adventure at the U.S. Copyright Office to investigate the owner of what I have concluded is an orphan work, check out this photo album on my Facebook Page

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